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In the ocean or on the ocean

in the ocean or on the ocean

I sat by the ocean. And drank a potion, baby, to erase you. Face down in the Boulevard Yet I couldn't face you. There ain't no use in crying. It doesn't change. Showcases form the railing behind which research equipment detects the treasures of the ocean and scientists discover unknown species. As the diorama at the. Fleming, R. H., and Roger Revelle. “Physical processes in the ocean. P. 48 – in Recent marine sediments, A symposium”. Parker D. Trask, Ed. Amer.


In the ocean or on the ocean -

As the diorama at the beginning of the exhibition shows, scientists use high-technology equipment to research and record the state and state changes of the oceans. September des Jahres, gefolgt von einer Europatour. Er hört die Geräusche von Walen und lässt sich treiben. Durch die Nutzung dieser Website erklären Sie sich mit den Nutzungsbedingungen und der Datenschutzrichtlinie einverstanden. Limnology and Oceanography, 50 2. But the worst is yet to come. Limnology and Oceanography, 57 3.{/ITEM}

We Are the Ocean war eine vierköpfige Post-Hardcore-Band aus der Stadt Loughton in Essex, England. Inhaltsverzeichnis. 1 Bandgeschichte; 2 Diskografie . Fleming, R. H., and Roger Revelle. “Physical processes in the ocean. P. 48 – in Recent marine sediments, A symposium”. Parker D. Trask, Ed. Amer. Many translated example sentences containing "ocean swell" – German-English dictionary and search engine for German translations.{/PREVIEW}

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Early in their geologic histories, Mars and Venus are theorized to have had large water oceans. The Mars ocean hypothesis suggests that nearly a third of the surface of Mars was once covered by water, and a runaway greenhouse effect may have boiled away the global ocean of Venus.

Compounds such as salts and ammonia dissolved in water lower its freezing point so that water might exist in large quantities in extraterrestrial environments as brine or convecting ice.

Unconfirmed oceans are speculated beneath the surface of many dwarf planets and natural satellites; notably, the ocean of Europa is estimated to have over twice the water volume of Earth.

The Solar System's giant planets are also thought to have liquid atmospheric layers of yet to be confirmed compositions.

Oceans may also exist on exoplanets and exomoons , including surface oceans of liquid water within a circumstellar habitable zone. Ocean planets are a hypothetical type of planet with a surface completely covered with liquid.

Related to this notion, the Okeanos is represented with a dragon-tail on some early Greek vases.

Though generally described as several separate oceans, the global, interconnected body of salt water is sometimes referred to as the World Ocean or global ocean.

The major oceanic divisions — listed below in descending order of area and volume — are defined in part by the continents , various archipelagos , and other criteria.

Oceans are fringed by smaller, adjoining bodies of water such as seas , gulfs , bays , bights , and straits. The mid-ocean ridges of the world are connected and form a single global mid-oceanic ridge system that is part of every ocean and the longest mountain range in the world.

The total mass of the hydrosphere is about 1. The area of the World Ocean is about The bluish color of water is a composite of several contributing agents.

Prominent contributors include dissolved organic matter and chlorophyll. In , scientists announced that for the first time, they had obtained photographic evidence of this glow.

Oceanographers divide the ocean into different vertical zones defined by physical and biological conditions.

The pelagic zone includes all open ocean regions, and can be divided into further regions categorized by depth and light abundance.

Because plants require photosynthesis , life found deeper than the photic zone must either rely on material sinking from above see marine snow or find another energy source.

The pelagic part of the photic zone is known as the epipelagic. The pelagic part of the aphotic zone can be further divided into vertical regions according to temperature.

The mesopelagic is the uppermost region. The last zone includes the deep oceanic trench , and is known as the hadalpelagic.

The benthic zones are aphotic and correspond to the three deepest zones of the deep-sea. Lastly, the hadal zone corresponds to the hadalpelagic zone, which is found in oceanic trenches.

The pelagic zone can be further subdivided into two subregions: The neritic zone encompasses the water mass directly above the continental shelves whereas the oceanic zone includes all the completely open water.

In contrast, the littoral zone covers the region between low and high tide and represents the transitional area between marine and terrestrial conditions.

It is also known as the intertidal zone because it is the area where tide level affects the conditions of the region. If a zone undergoes dramatic changes in temperature with depth, it contains a thermocline.

The tropical thermocline is typically deeper than the thermocline at higher latitudes. Polar waters, which receive relatively little solar energy, are not stratified by temperature and generally lack a thermocline because surface water at polar latitudes are nearly as cold as water at greater depths.

Because this deep and cold layer contains the bulk of ocean water, the average temperature of the world ocean is 3. If a zone undergoes a strong, vertical chemistry gradient with depth, it contains a chemocline.

The halocline often coincides with the thermocline, and the combination produces a pronounced pycnocline. The British naval vessel Challenger II surveyed the trench in and named the deepest part of the trench the " Challenger Deep ".

In , the Trieste successfully reached the bottom of the trench, manned by a crew of two men. Oceanic maritime currents have different origins. Tidal currents are in phase with the tide , hence are quasiperiodic , they may form various knots in certain places, [ clarification needed ] most notably around headlands.

Non periodic currents have for origin the waves, wind and different densities. These currents can decompose in one quasi permanent current which varies within the hourly scale and one movement of Stokes drift under the effect of rapid waves movement at the echelon of a couple of seconds.

This acceleration of the current takes place in the direction of waves and dominant wind. Accordingly, when the sea depth increases, the rotation of the earth changes the direction of currents, in proportion with the increase of depth while friction lowers their speed.

At a certain sea depth, the current changes direction and is seen inverted in the opposite direction with speed current becoming nul: The influence of these currents is mainly experienced at the mixed layer of the ocean surface, often from to meters of maximum depth.

These currents can considerably alter, change and are dependent on the various yearly seasons. If the mixed layer is less thick 10 to 20 meters , the quasi permanent current at the surface adopts an extreme oblique direction in relation to the direction of the wind, becoming virtually homogeneous, until the Thermocline.

In the deep however, maritime currents are caused by the temperature gradients and the salinity between water density masses. In littoral zones , breaking wave is so intense and the depth measurement so low, that maritime currents reach often 1 to 2 knots.

Ocean currents greatly affect Earth's climate by transferring heat from the tropics to the polar regions. Transferring warm or cold air and precipitation to coastal regions, winds may carry them inland.

Surface heat and freshwater fluxes create global density gradients that drive the thermohaline circulation part of large-scale ocean circulation.

It plays an important role in supplying heat to the polar regions, and thus in sea ice regulation.

Changes in the thermohaline circulation are thought to have significant impacts on Earth's energy budget. In so far as the thermohaline circulation governs the rate at which deep waters reach the surface, it may also significantly influence atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations.

For a discussion of the possibilities of changes to the thermohaline circulation under global warming , see shutdown of thermohaline circulation.

It is often stated that the thermohaline circulation is the primary reason that the climate of Western Europe is so temperate. An alternate hypothesis claims that this is largely incorrect, and that Europe is warm mostly because it lies downwind of an ocean basin, and because atmospheric waves bring warm air north from the subtropics.

The Antarctic Circumpolar Current encircles that continent, influencing the area's climate and connecting currents in several oceans.

One of the most dramatic forms of weather occurs over the oceans: The ocean has a significant effect on the biosphere. Oceanic evaporation , as a phase of the water cycle , is the source of most rainfall, and ocean temperatures determine climate and wind patterns that affect life on land.

Life within the ocean evolved 3 billion years prior to life on land. Both the depth and the distance from shore strongly influence the biodiversity of the plants and animals present in each region.

In addition, many land animals have adapted to living a major part of their life on the oceans. For instance, seabirds are a diverse group of birds that have adapted to a life mainly on the oceans.

They feed on marine animals and spend most of their lifetime on water, many only going on land for breeding. Other birds that have adapted to oceans as their living space are penguins , seagulls and pelicans.

Seven species of turtles, the sea turtles , also spend most of their time in the oceans. A zone of rapid salinity increase with depth is called a halocline.

The temperature of maximum density of seawater decreases as its salt content increases. Freezing temperature of water decreases with salinity, and boiling temperature of water increases with salinity.

If precipitation exceeds evaporation, as is the case in polar and temperate regions, salinity will be lower.

If evaporation exceeds precipitation, as is the case in tropical regions, salinity will be higher. Thus, oceanic waters in polar regions have lower salinity content than oceanic waters in temperate and tropical regions.

Salinity can be calculated using the chlorinity, which is a measure of the total mass of halogen ions includes fluorine, chlorine, bromine, and iodine in seawater.

By international agreement, the following formula is used to determine salinity:. The average chlorinity is about Many of the world's goods are moved by ship between the world's seaports.

Some of the major harvests are shrimp , fish , crabs , and lobster. The motions of the ocean surface, known as undulations or waves , are the partial and alternate rising and falling of the ocean surface.

The series of mechanical waves that propagate along the interface between water and air is called swell. Although Earth is the only known planet with large stable bodies of liquid water on its surface and the only one in the Solar System , other celestial bodies are thought to have large oceans.

The gas giants , Jupiter and Saturn , are thought to lack surfaces and instead have a stratum of liquid hydrogen ; however their planetary geology is not well understood.

The possibility of the ice giants Uranus and Neptune having hot, highly compressed, supercritical water under their thick atmospheres has been hypothesised.

Although their composition is still not fully understood, a study by Wiktorowicz and Ingersall ruled out the possibility of such a water "ocean" existing on Neptune, [60] though some studies have suggested that exotic oceans of liquid diamond are possible.

The Mars ocean hypothesis suggests that nearly a third of the surface of Mars was once covered by water, though the water on Mars is no longer oceanic much of it residing in the ice caps.

The possibility continues to be studied along with reasons for their apparent disappearance. Astronomers think that Venus had liquid water and perhaps oceans in its very early history.

A global layer of liquid water thick enough to decouple the crust from the mantle is thought to be present on the natural satellites Titan , Europa , Enceladus and, with less certainty, Callisto , Ganymede [62] [63] and Triton.

Marginal seas of moderate depths and the tops of seamounts , however, add their area to these depth zones when all the oceans are considered.

The majority of the oceanic area lies between 4, and 5, metres about 13, and 16, feet. The continental shelf region varies immensely from place to place.

The seaward boundary of the continental shelf historically is determined by the fathom, or metre, depth contour. However, 85 fathoms, or metres [about feet], is a closer approximation.

The true boundary at any given location is marked by a rapid change in slope of the seafloor known as the shelf break. This change in slope may be nearly at the coastline in areas where crustal plates converge, as along the west coast of North and South America, or it may be located more than 1, km about miles seaward of the coast, as off the north coast of Siberia.

The average width of the shelf is about 75 km about 45 miles , and the shelf has an average slope of about 0.

However, fossils dated from the Precambrian some 3. Carbonate sedimentary rocks , obviously laid down in an aquatic environment , have been dated to 1 billion years ago.

Also, there is fossil evidence of primitive marine algae and invertebrates from the Ediacaran Period million to million years ago. The presence of water on Earth at even earlier times is not documented by physical evidence.

It has been suggested, however, that the early hydrosphere formed in response to condensation from the early atmosphere. The ratios of certain chemical elements on Earth indicate that the planet formed by the accumulation of cosmic dust and was slowly warmed by radioactive and compressional heating.

The early atmosphere is thought to have been highly reducing and rich in gases, notably in hydrogen , and to include water vapour.

As time progressed and the planetary interior continued to warm, the composition of the gases escaping from within Earth gradually changed the properties of its atmosphere, producing a gaseous mixture rich in carbon dioxide CO 2 , carbon monoxide CO , and molecular nitrogen N 2.

The reaction of this oxygen with the materials of the surface gradually caused the vapour pressure of water vapour to increase to a level at which liquid water could form.

Water must have evaporated and condensed rapidly and accumulated slowly at first. The required buildup of atmospheric oxygen was slow because much of this gas was used to oxidize methane , ammonia , and exposed rocks high in iron.

Gradually, the partial pressure of the oxygen gas in the atmosphere rose as photosynthesis by bacteria and photodissociation continued to supply oxygen.

Biological processes involving algae increased, and they gradually decreased the carbon dioxide content and increased the oxygen content of the atmosphere until the oxygen produced by biological processes outweighed that produced by photodissociation.

This, in turn, accelerated the formation of surface water and the development of the oceans. We welcome suggested improvements to any of our articles.

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Oct 10, See Article History. Learn More in these related Britannica articles: Ocean closure culminates in continental collision and….

Lakes hold less than 0. In another important application to the Earth sciences, the furnace technique is used to study the rhodium content of geologic samples associated with the great Mesozoic extinction of These reservoirs have historically taken up large amounts of anthropogenic CO 2 emissions.

Roughly 50—70 percent is removed by the oceans, whereas the remainder is taken up by the terrestrial biosphere.

Global warming, however, could decrease the capacity of these reservoirs…. More About Ocean 38 references found in Britannica articles Assorted References major reference In marine ecosystem air-sea interface In air—sea interface atmosphere impact In atmosphere: Effect of oceans on air movement biological productivity In marine ecosystem: Biological productivity biological rhythm In biological rhythm carbon sequestration In carbon sequestration: Carbon sources and carbon sinks conservation and extinction issues In conservation: Early attempts at calculating the age of the Earth global warming In global warming: Carbon cycle feedbacks In global warming: Ice melt and sea level rise View More.

Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. Help us improve this article! Contact our editors with your feedback.

Introduction Relative distribution of the oceans Major subdivisions of the oceans Origin of the ocean waters.

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Volcano, vent in the crust of the Earth or another planet or satellite, from which issue eruptions of…. Hydrogen H , a colourless, odourless, tasteless, flammable gaseous substance that is the simplest member….

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In The Ocean Or On The Ocean Video

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